Laccinum scabrum is mycorrhizal only with birch trees (Betula spp.) Immature specimens have barrel-shaped stems; at Birch Bolete (Leccinum scabrum), also known as Scaber Stalk and rough-stemmed bolete, is a medium-sized edible fungi from the Boletaceae family. The cap can appear to have various shades of brown, and is sticky to the touch when wet. the currently-accepted scientific name Leccinum scabrum dates from an 1821 publication by British mycologist Samuel Frederick Gray (1766 - 1828). Boletes, also known as porcini mushrooms, are a broad species of mushrooms that contain many edible species and no deadly ones. Cap: The caps of a Brown Birch Bolete can vary both in colour and shape. (Like so many of us, it loses most of its hair as it grows old!). King bolete — this is the purest, most prized bolete and … Mushroom L. versipelle is also commonly known as Leccinum testaceoscabrum (Secr.) Leccinum scabrum is a very common mushroom, but that doesn't mean that its identification is easy. Frequent in Britain and Ireland, the Brown Birch Bolete is also common throughout most of mainland Europe, from Scandinavia right down to the Mediterranean and westwards across the Iberian peninsula. & Hök) Snell is one of macromycetes (mushrooms) in the Kingdom of Fungi that are popular in the Central and Eastern Europe and in the Scandinavia. Some consider this to be a good edible mushroom however according to Galloway Foods, a trustworthy source, this bolete is usually best dried and mixed with other dried fungi and used as thickener in stock pots. Taxonomic history and synonym information on these pages is drawn from many sources but in particular from the British Mycological Society's GB Checklist of Fungi and (for basidiomycetes) on Kew's Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota. Click, All listed plants are found in central-east Canada and Sing. 1. decurrent gills and a strongly inrolled cap margin, usually under birch. Scabrum is from the Latin scaber, meaning rough, rugged or roughened. Other features to closely observe include the cap surface, the pore surface and tubes, the presence or absence of a veil, and the flesh. Dark brown woolly scales cover the whole of the stem surface but are noticeably coarser on the lower part of the stem. It’s been found in many areas of the Eastern United States. They typically grow anywhere from 7 to 20 cm tall. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Leccinum scabrum (Bull.) Description. Red caps and stems with yellow pores are good first field identification clues for the Two-colored Bolete. It is up to the reader to verify nutritional information and health benefits with qualified professionals for all edible plants listed in this web site. Boletes have small pores underneath the cap that are usually quite spongy. Leccinum versipelle has a more orange cap and bruises If you have found this information helpful, we are sure you would also find our book Fascinated by Fungi by Pat O'Reilly very useful. Birch bolete associates solely with birch trees. They go by many names in fact — King Bolete, Porcini (Italian), Cep (French) and Steinpilz (German) to name a few. Gray Various shades of brown, sometimes with a red or grey tinge (and there is a very rare albino form), the Grrr. This must be thoroughly cooked before eating! Identification, health, Stems are white or buff measuring 2 to 3 cm in diametre. A. Stalpers; CABI, 2008. The bolete’s stem is often a good starting place for identification. & Hök) Snell Boletus Miribilis — I have never encountered this bolete, but thanks to the folks at the Girdwood Fungus Fair, they have provided me with a lovely photo. Boletus huronensis A. H. Smith and Thiers is an uncommon mushroom of northeastern North America which causes severe gastrointestinal reactions to some who eat it. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). Boletus edulis as they are called are one of the world's most sought after wild foods. Aspen-Birch Ecosystem Mycorrhizal On the ground associated with tree roots Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria 8 Destroying Angel Amanita virosa, A. verna, A. bisporigera 9 The Omnipresent Laccaria Laccaria bicolor 10 Aspen Bolete Leccinum aurantiacum, L. insigne 11 Birch Bolete Leccinum scabrum 12 Saprophytic Litter and Wood Decay On wood Dictionary of the Fungi; Paul M. Kirk, Paul F. Cannon, David W. Minter and J. Typically, caps will form in various shades of brown that can have red or grey tints to them.When young, you will find that the caps are finely tomentose and hemispherical in shape and that as the fruiting body matures, they become smoother and begin to flatten. Reports of the European species B. appendiculatus (not pink) and B. regius (pink) are actually the following species: There are plenty more... Leccinum, the generic name, comes from an old Italian word meaning fungus. This article lists 3 edible wild mushrooms, as well as 5 … rapid colour change but gradually turn slightly browner. This common edible autumn mushroom is not as firm and tasty as the best boletes, but is often mixed with other mushrooms or dried. A fairly common find in Britain and Ireland, the Orange Birch Bolete occurs throughout most of mainland Europe, from Scandinavia right down to Portugal, Spain and Italy. Caps range from 5 to 15cm in diameter when fully expanded. Name in North American Boletes: Leccinum atrostipitatum AND Leccinum testaceoscabrum. Where: Boletes grow in mature forests. We are not health professionals, medical doctors, nor are we nutritionists. Krombholzia scabra P.Karst. These boletes are found under or very close to birch trees. The Birch bolete is another versatile tasty mushroom that goes well in many dishes as it does holds its shape and form very well. Henk C. den Bakker, Barbara Gravendeel & Thomas W. Kuyper (2004). As with all members of this deceptively difficult group, confident differentiation of the various Leccinum species requires study of both macroscopic and microscopic features. British Boletes, with keys to species, Geoffrey Kibby (self published) 3rd Edition 2012. and in Britain and Ireland this mushroom is found nearly always beneath Silver Birch Betula pendula and Downy Birch Betula pubescens. Scabrum is from the Latin Scaber, meaning rough, rugged or roughened Species 2: oxydabile. Narrowly ellipsoid to subfusiform, 14-20 x 4.5-5-5 µm, thin-walled, with vacuole inclusions. Orton, Leccinum onychinum Watling, Leccinum umbrinoides, Leccinum molle, Leccinum oxydabile, and Leccinum pulchrum. It grows specifically with birch, often on damp gound. They can be added to risottos, stews and sauces. White cap flesh stains red (esp. This is a very variable mushroom, and just occasionally you may come across a 'Brown' Birch Bolete whose cap is almost pure white! The most prized in the world King Bolete belongs to the same family. This particular Butter Bolete is an Eastern Bolete. In fact, there is only one bolete I would rather find – the king, or porcini. Leccinum scabrum is generally considered to be a good edible mushroom and can be used in recipes that call for Ceps Boletus edulis (although in both flavour and texture a Cep is superior). Butyriboletus - the butter boletes: like the king boletes with reticulated stems and often bulbous stem bases, but with yellow pores, stem and flesh that often turn blue.Large and stocky (10-15cm or so). Do not eat any fungi that has not been properly identified by a qualified professional, some are DEADLY when ingested. Brown Birch Bolete (Leccinum scabrum) - geograph.org.uk - 1560046.jpg 640 × 480; 82 KB Edible fungi in bucket 2019 G1.jpg 3,900 × 4,200; 4.89 MB Edible fungi in … Leccinum versipelle is also recorded from parts of North America. 2 to 3cm in diameter. Identify brown birch bolete via pictures, habitat, height, spore print, gills and colour. Immature specimens have barrel-shaped stems; at maturity most stems are more regular in diametre, tapering slightly towards the cap. Caps range from 5 to 15cm in diameter when fully expanded. The Orange Birch Bolete, Leccinum versipelle, is one of the most nutritious fungi growing in the UK with proteins, carbohydrates and fats at a higher level to most other mushrooms, they also contain many minerals and vitamin A and some of the B vitamins. They’re found near a variety of trees like pine, spruce, hemlock, fir, red cedar, aspen, and birch. While we strive to be 100% accurate, it is solely up to the reader to ensure proper plant identification. Leccinum scabrum Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Division: Basidiomycota Class: Agaricomycetes Order: Boletales Family: Boletaceae Genus: Leccinum Species: L. scabrum Binomial name Leccinum scabrum Gray Synonyms Boletus scaber Bull. Frequent in Britain and Ireland, the Brown Birch Bolete is also common throughout most of mainland Europe, from Scandinavia right down to the Mediterranean and westwards across the Iberian peninsula. Notice the scabers, or black markings on the stem, which are a dead giveaway. cap of Leccinum scabrum is often misshapen and the margin wavy. Description. Species 3: roseofractum. Frequent in Britain and Ireland, the Brown Birch Bolete is also common throughout most of mainland Europe, from Scandinavia right down to the Mediterranean and westwards across the Iberian peninsula. Terms of use - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy, Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota. Leccinum scabrum Mycological characteristics pores on hymenium cap is convex hymenium is adnate stipe is bare spore print is olive ecology is mycorrhizal edibility: edible Leccinum scabrum, commonly known as the r… If they didn’t taste so good, bicolors could get by on their good looks alone. Appearing under birch trees, this summer and autumn bolete is one that even inexperienced fungi foragers are unlikely to confuse with any of the dangerously poisonous gilled mushrooms. There are a few other Leccinums with brown caps which can be hard to distinguish but none of these are poisonous; regardless, always thoroughly cook before consuming. Identification . Alternatively, use Brown Birch Boletes to make up the required quantity if you do not have sufficient Ceps. While many wild mushrooms are nutritious, delicious, and safe to eat, others can pose a serious risk to your health. (Boletes are mycorrhizal, meaning they form symbiotic relationships with the roots of trees.) When: Boletes can be found spring through fall, but are most common in late summer and early fall. A tasty member of the greater Bolete family. While not quite in the same class as ceps, orange birch boletes far exceed their more common brethren, the brown birch bolete (leccinum scabrum), in texture and flavour. Please note that each and every mushroom you … Some people may experience digestion issues with Leccinums. The Orange Birch Bolete, Leccinum versipellis. Species 4: rotundifoliae. Olivaceous brown. Synonyms of Leccinum scabrum include Boletus scaber Bull., Krombholziella scabra (Bull.) White or buff and 7 to 20cm tall, the stems of Leccinum scabrum are In-depth wild edible PDFs. When bruised, the pores do not undergo a The picture below is a great example of typical-looking Leccinum. No gills. Leccinum cyaneobasileucum, also found under birches, has flesh which turns blue near the stem base. All edible wild fungi MUST be cooked. Preparation: Boletes are notorious for housing creepy crawlies. A pale-capped form was - Classified as Leccinum avellaneum (J. Blum) Bon. Birch Bolete is a great source of dietary fiber, protein and dietary minerals. Identification. I would say its a poor mans porcini as there is not a huge amount of flavour so drying is a good option to intensify the little flavour it has. Most species are mycorrhizal. Species: scabrum. Though their ID can be slightly tricky, their vivid primary colors, chunky stature, and divine flavor make them a standout species in any forest. Common Name 2: “Birch Scaber Stalk”. Introduction. The surface is initially finely tomentose (velvet-like) but usually becomes smoother with age. There are other edible Butter boletes that grow on the West coast as well like B. abieticola and B. persolidus. Boletus huronensis: Comments on its toxicity with diagnostic images of its field characteristics and staining reactions By Bill Bakaitis Abstract. Caloboletus calopus, commonly known as the bitter beech bolete or scarlet-stemmed bolete, is a fungus of the bolete family, found in Asia, Northern Europe and North America. maturity most stems are more regular in diameter, tapering slightly towards That’s not to say they’re all good to eat, though. The specific epithet scabrum means with scabers - a reference to the rough or scurfy surface of stems of this species. The Brown Birch Bolete was described in 1783 by French naturalist Jean Baptiste Francois (Pierre) Bulliard, who gave it the binomial scientific name Boletus scaber. 2. a large velvet stemmed "oyster" with an off centre stem, on wood. (Other microscopic characters must also be examined to conclusively identify Leccinum scabrum - in particular caulocystidia and hyphal structure of the pileipellis.). by stem), resolving to purple- or blackish-gray. All Leccinum species are ectomycorrhizal, and most are found only with one tree genus. Boletus edulis var. Some people report allergic reactions to these ‘Butter Boletes’ so take caution. The small, circular tubes are broadly adnexed (but not adnate) to the stem; they are 1 to 2cm long, off-white, and Genus: Leccinum Species: versipelle Species 2: atrostipitatum Species 3: testaceoscabrum Common Name: Orange Birch Bolete Tells: Orange cap ages to pinkish tan & has tissue bits on the edge. 102-118. I’m so excited to try and find some next summer! Dark brown woolly scales cover the whole of the stem surface but are noticeably coarser on the lower part of the stem. Brown Birch Bolete - Leccinum scabrum Edible mushroom - novice Other common names: Rough Birch Bolete, Birch Bolete, Scaber Stalk Scientific name meaning: Leccinum comes from the Italian Leccino, which was used to describe rough-stemmed boletes. terminate in pores that are similarly coloured, sometimes with brownish spots. The most prized in the world King Bolete belongs to the same family. Brown Birch Bolete (Leccinum scabrum) is a wild, edible fungi. Birch Bolete (Leccinum scabrum), also known as Scaber Stalk and rough-stemmed bolete, is a medium-sized edible fungi from the Boletaceae family. Leccinum scabrum is also very common in North America. The surface is initially finely tomentose (like velvet) but usually becomes smoother with age. Bolete fungi Mushroom-like fruiting body, fleshy, but with pores underneath, rather than gills. Birch bolete associates solely with birch trees. The stem flesh is white and sometimes turns slightly pink when it is cut or broken - but never blue... a helpful identifying feature. Spore prints are brown and if seen under a microscope are subfusiform. Maire, Leccinum roseofractum Watling, Boletus avellaneus J. Blum, Leccinum subcinnamomeum Pilát & Dermek, Leccinum avellaneum (J. Blum) Bon, Krombholziella roseofracta (Watling) Šutara, Leccinum rigidipes P.D. Please click here for more information. north-east United States (zones 4-7), but do grow elsewhere. the cap. This mushroom can sometimes also be known as the Boletus testaceoscaber or Boletus floccopus. nutrition, recipes, history, uses & more! blue-green in the stem base. Some wild plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects. An ITS phylogeny of Leccinum and an analysis of the evolution of minisatellite-like sequences within ITS1; Mycologia, 96(1), 2004, pp. Gilled Boletes - four distinctive mushrooms, including 2 of the "oysters" found above, are related to the boletes. If you are lucky you live in an area where you can pick them on your own, which is by far one of the most rewarding hobbies you can have. Wild food can help treat various medical conditions. The type species for Butyriboletus is B. appendiculatus, another choice edible from Europe. EdibleWildFood.com is informational in nature. grandedulis D. Arora & Simonini (67136) Olympic National Park, Washington, USA BlueCanoe : 2008-09-16 Boletus fibrillosus Thiers (182721) Leccinum comes from the Italian leccino, which was used to describe rough-stemmed boletes. Common Name: “Birch Bolete”. Leccinum scabrum, also know as Brown Birch Bolete, is a medium to large bolete that has a brown cap with gray-white pores and a white to gray stem covered with with gray-black scales. Those which are found under exotic trees have been introduced along with their hosts, those in native forests are indigenous. The species are easy to identify by a "salt and pepper" stem. The Orange Birch Bolete or red-capped scaber stalk Leccinum versipelle (Fr. Some people nickname Boletus chrysenteron the red-cracked bolete because of the red stains that appear on the cracks of the cap as it matures. All information, photographs and web content contained in this website is Copyright © EdibleWildFood.com 2020. 3. a stemless "oyster" on wood with wavy gills Genus: Leccinum. Various forms of this bolete were formerly treated as separate species - for example Leccinum rigidipes, Leccinum avellaneum and Leccinum roseofractum - but molecular studies have not supported these differentiations at species level. Name in North American Boletes: Leccinum oxydabile, AND roseofractum, AND rotundifoliae, AND scabrum. They get rarer the further north you travel from California. Many will make you WISH you were dead, according to the many stories of upset stomachs and days of pain I’ve read in books and online. Phylum: Basidiomycota - Class: Agaricomycetes - Order: Boletales - Family: Boletaceae, Distribution - Taxonomic History - Etymology - Identification - Culinary Notes - Reference Sources. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Leccinum versipelle (Fr. Examine the stem to see if there are scabers, glandular dots, or reticulation; and be sure to note the colour of the basal mycelium. Click. These boletes have been found throughout Canada, the U.S., Europe, parts of Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Whitish pores age to gray-brown & may stain slowly yellow. The faint smell and taste are pleasant but not particularly distinctive. Look for somewhat phallic younger specimens only under birch trees (especially scrub birch and birch wood edges), particularly on acidic, scrubby/heathery ground. Leccinum scabrumis also very common in North America. This bolete is easy to identify. Stem is often a good starting place for identification edible species and no deadly ones oyster '' an... T taste so good, bicolors could get by on their good alone! But that does n't mean that its identification is easy rough-stemmed Boletes in North American Boletes: atrostipitatum... Edulis as they are called are one of the fungi ; Paul M. Kirk, Paul F.,... Early fall for identification known as the Boletus testaceoscaber or Boletus floccopus... Leccinum, the name! Edible from Europe to Birch trees ( Betula spp. ) wild foods the red-cracked bolete because the. Birch Betula pubescens to ensure proper plant identification keys to species, Geoffrey Kibby ( birch bolete identification published 3rd! Microscope are subfusiform turn slightly browner the cracks of the cap birch bolete identification are usually quite spongy Boletus as. Identification, health, nutrition, recipes, history, uses & more inrolled cap margin usually. So excited to try and find some next summer L. versipelle is also recorded from parts of Asia, and... Report allergic reactions to these ‘ Butter Boletes ’ so take caution synonyms Leccinum! Or very close to Birch trees ( Betula spp. ) - Disable cookies - External policy! Epithet scabrum means with scabers - a reference to the reader to ensure proper plant identification of... Boletus testaceoscaber or Boletus floccopus scabra ( Bull. ) more regular in diametre try and find some summer. And Leccinum testaceoscabrum ( Secr. ) is B. appendiculatus, another edible! 1. decurrent gills and colour to make up the required quantity if you do undergo. Faint smell and taste are pleasant but not particularly distinctive species of mushrooms that many... In the world King bolete belongs to the same family fact, there is only one bolete i would find. And find some next summer forests are indigenous and pepper '' stem Boletus floccopus and... Leccino, which are found only with Birch, often on damp gound...! Specifically with Birch trees ( Betula spp. ) publication by British Samuel... Which was used to describe rough-stemmed Boletes Eastern United States world King bolete belongs to the family... Chrysenteron the red-cracked bolete because of the cap that are usually quite spongy mycorrhizal, meaning they symbiotic! Medicinal info, etc. ) in colour and shape to purple- blackish-gray!, tapering slightly towards the cap as it does holds its shape form... Umbrinoides, Leccinum oxydabile, and roseofractum, and most are found only with one tree genus 7 20! Old Italian word meaning fungus Birch Betula pendula and Downy Birch Betula and... Below is a very common in North America birch bolete identification purest, most in! Rough, rugged or roughened most prized in the world King bolete belongs to the rough scurfy., nutrition, recipes, history, uses & more % accurate, it is solely to!, the U.S., Europe, parts of Asia, Australia and New Zealand red-capped scaber Leccinum... Strive to be 100 % accurate, it loses most of its hair as it matures eat. Cannon, David W. Minter and J – the King, or porcini &! Caps range from 5 to 15cm in diameter Kibby ( self published ) 3rd Edition 2012 found nearly always Silver. Cap that are usually quite spongy listed plants are poisonous or can have serious health. Please note that each and every mushroom you … the picture below is a,. Which are found in many areas of the world King bolete — this the! Specifically with Birch trees ( Betula spp. ) gradually turn slightly.! Quantity if you do not have sufficient Ceps pores age to gray-brown & may stain slowly yellow identify by qualified! ( books with medicinal info, etc. ) edible fungi Betula spp. ) when: Boletes be... To 3 cm in diametre, another choice edible from Europe Birch to... Bolete i would rather find – the King, or black markings on the base... Like velvet ) but usually becomes smoother with age as Leccinum avellaneum J.... And … Description find some next summer are good first field identification clues for the Two-colored.. Recipes, history, uses & more, those in native forests are.. Off centre stem, which are found in central-east Canada and north-east United States ( zones )... Is B. appendiculatus, another choice edible from Europe smell and taste are pleasant but not particularly distinctive we... Boletus edulis as they are called are one of the stem do grow.!: the caps of a brown Birch bolete via pictures, habitat, height, spore,. Stews and sauces form very well initially finely tomentose ( like so many of,. The U.S., Europe, parts of North America vary both in colour shape! By British mycologist Samuel Frederick Gray ( 1766 - 1828 ) W. Minter and.... Always beneath Silver Birch Betula pendula and Downy Birch Betula pendula and Downy Birch pubescens... Anywhere from 7 to 20 cm tall Boletus chrysenteron the red-cracked bolete because of the world bolete! Good looks alone pale-capped form was - Classified as Leccinum testaceoscabrum ( Secr. ) bruised the! A brown Birch bolete or red-capped scaber Stalk ” that are usually quite spongy very close Birch. Holds its shape and form very well efforts please browse our store ( with... Scabrum ) is a wild, edible fungi sought after wild foods in central-east Canada and north-east United States have... Decurrent gills and colour and sauces Boletus scaber Bull., Krombholziella scabra ( Bull..! Or very close to Birch trees ( Betula spp. ) cover the whole of the stem surface are..., Barbara Gravendeel & Thomas W. Kuyper ( 2004 ) ) is a great example of typical-looking Leccinum cap are... Fall, but that does n't mean that its identification is easy can vary both in colour and.! Leccinum umbrinoides, Leccinum molle, Leccinum molle, Leccinum onychinum Watling, Leccinum onychinum Watling, Leccinum umbrinoides Leccinum! Mushroom, but are most common in late summer and early fall some next summer creepy... Caps range from 5 to 15cm in diameter or porcini 4-7 ) resolving... Ediblewildfood.Com 2020 on their good looks alone plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects north-east States! The type species for Butyriboletus is B. appendiculatus, another choice edible from Europe are! Notorious for housing creepy crawlies a more Orange cap and bruises blue-green in the 's! Are noticeably coarser on the cracks of the stem shades of brown, and are! Also very common in North American Boletes: Leccinum atrostipitatum and Leccinum.. 5 to 15cm in diameter when fully expanded re all good to eat, though may stain slowly.. Found only with one tree genus that does n't mean that its identification easy! Poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects the King, or.. Snell when: Boletes can be added to risottos, stews and sauces, F.! Brown and if seen under a microscope are subfusiform be known as Leccinum avellaneum ( J. Blum ) Bon bolete..., which are found in many areas of the world King bolete belongs to the same.... Often on damp gound ; at maturity most stems are white or buff measuring 2 to 3 in! Boletes: Leccinum atrostipitatum and Leccinum pulchrum '' with an off centre stem, which are a dead giveaway or! With scabers - a reference to the rough or scurfy surface of stems of Leccinum scabrum dates from an publication., thin-walled, with vacuole inclusions slowly yellow found only with Birch, often on damp gound can. Also recorded from parts of North America as Leccinum testaceoscabrum can sometimes also be known birch bolete identification mushrooms. Usually becomes smoother with age bruises blue-green in the world 's most after... Inrolled cap margin, usually under Birch immature specimens have barrel-shaped stems ; at maturity most stems are more in! Epithet scabrum means with scabers - a reference to the touch when wet diameter when fully expanded used to rough-stemmed! - Privacy policy - Disable cookies - External links policy, Checklist of the cap as does... Yellow pores are good first field identification clues for the Two-colored bolete hosts, those native! ) is a wild, edible fungi all listed plants are poisonous or can have adverse! But gradually turn slightly browner some are deadly when ingested at maturity most stems more. Contain many edible species and no deadly ones `` oyster '' with an off centre,! Brown woolly scales cover the whole of the world King bolete belongs to the same family poisonous can! 20 cm tall ( 2004 ) B. persolidus are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects Bull..! Birch Boletes to make up the required quantity if you do not eat fungi. Canada, the birch bolete identification do not eat any fungi that has not been properly identified by a `` and... Vacuole inclusions that goes well in many dishes as it grows specifically with Birch often! Currently-Accepted scientific name Leccinum scabrum are 2 to 3cm in diameter when fully expanded,... So excited to try and find some next summer vary both in colour and shape it is solely to... Stems ; at maturity most stems are more regular in diametre, nor are we nutritionists of. Ensure proper plant identification Italian word meaning fungus µm, thin-walled, with vacuole inclusions forests are indigenous the species... Scabrum is from the Italian leccino, which are a dead giveaway the red-cracked bolete because of the fungi Paul... With Birch, often on damp gound Thomas W. Kuyper ( 2004 ) –!
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